The Basic Functioning of Operating System

As we all know, PCs and mobile devices are not only used for work. These machines are also used for entertainment or simply as a hobby. So what is it exactly that makes these devices work? In this blog, I will explain what these devices are all about and their basic functioning.

The OS is the command center for your smartphone or tablet and allows you to do everything from sending texts to calling people on the phone. With all the new features that come along with the upgrades, the OS can become a confusing place to find out what all your options are.

The operating system is the basic part of the computer. It’s the core that controls the computer and the basic functions and services that the computer performs day to day. The operating system is also the part of the computer where the apps are installed and the programs are executed. These apps and programs are called the software. The operating system plays a vital role in all of this.

If you use a computer or other smart device, you’ve probably come across the phrase operating system (Android, Windows, Linux, iOS, mac). However, if you are unfamiliar with the word and its functionality, we will explain the operation of the operating system in detail in front of you today.

Overview of the Operating System

So, first and foremost, what is an Operating System? 

An operating system (OS) is system software that controls computer hardware and software resources while also providing common functions to applications. Wikimedia Commons

The operating system is a piece of software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services to ensure that computer applications function properly. The time-sharing operating system organizes activities for the system’s efficient operation, which includes processor time cost-efficiency, printing mass storage, and other valuable resources.

The primary function of an Operating System, in simple terms, is to create an environment in which we may run applications.

Input and output, as well as memory allocation, are among the hardware tasks managed by the operating system. The operating system’s primary purpose is to serve as a bridge between software and hardware. The application code, on the other hand, is usually run directly by the hardware and makes frequent calls to an OS function or is stopped by it.

It serves as a link between the user and the computer. As a result, an Operating System ensures that everything in the computer runs smoothly and effectively.

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The operating system may be found on a variety of computer-based devices, including phones, video game consoles, supercomputers, and other similar devices. Microsoft Windows is the most popular and widely used operating system, accounting for 82.74 percent of the market. MacOS, Linux, and Android make up the remainder of the market.

Operating System Types

Operating systems are divided into four categories. Their applicability is dependent on the kind of computer and the programs that will be executed on it.

  1. Machinery, research equipment, and industrial systems all utilize real-time operating systems (RTOS). The user has little influence over the functions performed by RTOS in general.
  2. Single-user, single-task operating systems enable a single user to concentrate on one job at a time. The operating system used by personal digital assistants (PDAs), often known as portable computers, is an example of a single-user, single-task operating system.
  3. Single-user, multi-tasking operating systems enable a single user to execute several programs on their computer at the same time. This is the kind of operating system found on the majority of personal computers, both desktop and laptop. Three well-known examples of this kind of system are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.
  4. Multiple users may utilize the resources on a single machine at the same time using multi-user operating systems. A multi-user operating system such as Unix is an example.

The operating system architecture

Operating systems are in charge of a computer’s hardware resources. The kernel and shell are the components of the operating system that handle the most important tasks. When a user issues a command to accomplish a task, the request is sent to the shell, also known as the interpreter. After that, the shell portion converts the human program into machine code and sends the request to the kernel part.

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The kernel processes the request from the shell and shows the result on the screen when it gets it. Because it performs all operations, the kernel is often regarded as the operating system’s heart.


The shell is a piece of software that sits between the user and the kernel and offers kernel-level functions. As a result, the shell functions as an interpreter, converting user instructions into machine code. Command-line shells and graphical shells are the two kinds of shells seen in various operating systems.

A command line interface is provided by command-line shells, whereas a graphical user interface is provided by graphical line shells. Despite the fact that both shells execute activities, graphical user interface shells are slower than command line interface shells.

Shells of various types

  • Shell of Korn
  • Shell of Bourne
  • C shell
  • Shell POSIX


The kernel is a software component. It acts as a link between the shell and the hardware. It’s in charge of executing applications and securing access to the machine’s hardware. The kernel is utilized for scheduling, which means it keeps track of all processes.

Kernels of Various Types

  • Kernel that is monolithic
  • Microkernels
  • Exokernels
  • Kernels that are hybrids

An operating system has five primary purposes.

 To work correctly, every computer system requires an operating system. The operating system’s primary purpose is to provide a seamless user interface and manage the operation of other programs. However, operating systems also handle a variety of other essential tasks, such as –

Hardware Administration

The operating system’s most essential and fundamental job is to handle all of the computer’s internal and external hardware. All connected devices are managed by the operating system, which instructs them how to function and interact with the system. This is because the computer’s fundamental function is to display the results of commands and interactions. Hard disks, optical drives, video cards, and other hardware components are all managed by the operating system.

Control of the program

The operating system also executes applications and allows them to do the tasks for which they were created. The software must be built to work with the operating system in question. This is due to the operating system’s need to show the interface and facilitate communication between the application and the computer’s hardware. Programs can’t do what they’re supposed to do without the operating system.

Data Availability

It is also a function of the operating system to store, retrieve, and access data on the hard drive in order for the operating system to execute fundamental tasks. The operating system is also in charge of managing the data temporarily stored in the computer’s RAM. The operating system may store and retrieve any kind of data, including document files, photographs, movies, and music. Although the hard drive can read and write data on its own, the operating system instructs it on what data to read and how to write it.

Management of Resources

The operating system’s feature set is extensive, and it includes the capability of controlling and assigning all of the computer’s resources as needed. Which job should be handled by the CPU first in terms of resource management? Which software must be aligned to handle the computer system’s power and memory? How do you assign a program to control the computer’s operation? The operating systems also make a lot of additional resource-related choices. The operating systems prioritize essential operations so that the computer’s normal functions are not disrupted.


The operating system also makes network connection easier by allowing network devices to interact with the computer and any applications that need them. It is one of the OS’s main tasks to enable network connectivity via various technologies such as network cards. An operating system is needed to control the communication process so that information may be transferred. Network cards can only create connections between networks and tools. The operating system also analyzes the data that has been sent in order for the installed application to provide the best possible display to the consumers.

Since a result, the operating system is a critical component of the computer and other computer-based devices, as it performs numerous tasks. If you don’t want to interrupt the operating system’s operation, be sure you’re running the proper operating system on your computer.

The OS is the most critical part of the smartphone because it’s the foundation that supports all the other parts of the device. When things go wrong, the OS becomes the most direct line of communication between the user and the rest of the smartphone. It’s this mission that our blog will focus on, as the operating system is the single most important part of the device.. Read more about operating system and its functions and let us know what you think.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 6 basic functions of an operating system?

The 6 basic functions of an operating system are as follows: -To manage resources such as memory and processor usage -To provide a platform for applications to run on -To provide security, such as preventing unauthorized access to the computer -To provide a user interface that allows users to interact with their computer -To allow users to share files between devices and programs

What are the basic function of operating system class 11?

Operating system class 11 is a type of operating system that is used on computers. It is the most widely used type of operating system in use today.

What are the 4 functions of an operating system?

The 4 functions of an operating system are to provide the basic framework for all other software on a computer, to manage hardware resources, to provide security and protection from viruses and malware, and to facilitate communication between different programs.

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  • 5 functions of an operating system

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